last edited: Fri, 19 Jun 2020 22:11:46 +0200  
Indigenous Fermented Foods
Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 3rd Ed.
Edited by M. P. Doyle and L. R. Beuchat
© 2007 ASM Press, Washington, D.C.

Did you notice how beautifully they recorded and mixed in the bread slicing?
I must admit that I have never thought about sourdough that much ... I am impressed.
The German word is likewise, btw, you can still somewhat sense the common linguistic history of both words: Sauerteig. Which does look different, but gets more obvious phonetically:

dough going back to Middle English dagh, where the connection is more visible.
Both going back to proto-germanic daigaz (ˈdɑi̯.ɣɑz).
In Italian "lievito di pasta madre" or more simply "pasta madre"
  last edited: Tue, 05 May 2020 23:36:05 +0200  
My workflow is much easier and I do not have such good results :-)
Now I know a little more:

15 Mistakes Most Beginner Sourdough Bakers Make
by Pro Home Cooks on YouTube

Can I Make Sourdough Bread with No Baking Equipment?
by Pro Home Cooks on YouTube
Some Animals Have No Microbiome. Here’s What That Tells Us. (04/2020,

To stay healthy, humans and some other animals rely on a complex community of bacteria in their guts. But research is starting to show that those partnerships might be more the exception than the rule.

“Every organism that exists has three and a half billion years of evolutionary history behind it, many millions or tens or hundreds of millions of which are not shared with organisms that we use as models,” Sanders said. Scientists’ emerging awareness of the diverse relationships that animals share with microbes “should make us really cautious about drawing inferences using fruit flies as models for gut microbiome importance or interactions, because fruit flies might be operating from a very different fundamental starting point compared to humans. It’s the same thing with mice.”


!Cheese Forum


Beginning Cheese Making

Welcome to Cheese Making, formerly “Fankhauser’s Cheese Page.” Yes, my site is transitioning–I appreciate your patience.
The Best Probiotics (2019)


The Best Probiotics (2019, TheAtlantic)

An apple contains about 100 million bacteria—a more diverse range than any dietary supplement.

Eat a “balanced” diet, full of fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, et cetera. If you do all that, except for specific cases, the average person shouldn’t need supplemental microbes.

see also:
A better way to wash pesticides off apples (2017)

An Apple a Day: Which Bacteria Do We Eat With Organic and Conventional Apples?
(Front. Microbiol., 24 July 2019 |
Pro o pre??
Io pensavo che la mela era prebiotic...
Si, infatti, tutte e due, prebiotico e probiotico
Questo articolo mette in luce, a titolo d'esempio, l'aspetto probiotico e meno conosciuto della mela.
Trovo interessante parlare della microbiologia "benefica" degli alimenti, un argomento spesso trascurato e dato solo importanza se si parla dei cibi fermentati.

Molto curioso e nuovo per me è stato sentire parlare della microbiologia del torsolo della mela.
Proverò a fare qualche morso più coraggioso nella mela in futuro. :-)
Molto interessante e, come lei dice bene, un argomento molto trascurato.. Grazie!
Review Article

Bacteriophage therapy: a potential solution for the antibiotic resistance crisis
J Infect Dev Ctries 2014; 8(2):129-136  doi:10.3855/jidc. 3573)

The  emergence of multiple drug-resistant bacteria has  prompted interest in alternatives to conventional antimicrobials.  One of the possible replacement options for antibiotics is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. Phage therapy  is an important alternative to antibiotics in the current era of drug-resistant pathogens. Bacteriophages have played an important role in the expansion of molecular biology and have been used as antibacterial agents since 1966. In this review,  we describe a brief history of bacteriophages and clinical studies on their use in bacterial disease prophylaxis and therapy. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophages as therapeutic agents in this regard.

#superbugs #antibiotic_resistance
  last edited: Fri, 13 Sep 2019 06:34:20 +0200  
Yes, this is highly interesting IMO.
I only have some German links to add, these are programs how I learned about this some years ago.
My first encounter was a radio feature that I cannot find right now.

Nano (3sat): Phagentherapie - Viren gegen Bakterien einsetzen!
by Will Fried on YouTube
Umami (something around it)

  last edited: Sat, 16 Feb 2019 08:10:21 +0100  
@Marshall Sutherland
Yes, it is not really an one-family format. :-)
In Italy, at least in my region, this solution You can find on a buffet for parties. Typically the catering service breaks a half cheese form into many handy pieces.
The cheese serves as apéritif and is often combined with a glass of Prosecco. Or it serves at the end of the meal to "close the stomach" with a Grappa.

Yeah, that is a lot of cheese to be consumed! I meant to mention this to my cheese-monger last night, but I forgot.
Not everyone's taste :-)
Fish fermentation allowed the ancient Romans to store their fish surplus for long periods, in a time when there were no freezers and fishing was bound to fish migratory patterns.

Garum: Fermented Fish Sauce for the Ancient Roman Masses (2015, notechmagazine)


Garum (Wikipedia)
Fish sauce (Wikipedia)
Umami and the foods of classical antiquity (2009, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition)
My collection about MICROBIOTA (in progress)
Garum: la salsa malagueña de la antigua Roma


Los boquerones de la bahía malagueña eran el ingrediente principal del «garum», una salsa muy apreciada como condimento por los romanos
Grazie, molto interessante. Il Guardian è sempre una ottima fonte di informazioni
  last edited: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 17:45:59 +0100  
It's worth it

Marshall SutherlandMarshall Sutherland wrote the following post Sat, 02 Feb 2019 03:34:48 +0100
Jonathan Bailor has been a big part of my health and nutrition education over the past 8 years. He has a new series out about diabesity. It is a program he is selling, but 8 hours of video from it are free to watch this weekend. Having only watched the first half hour (and the weekend would probably be over if I waited until I finished to post this), I can't really give you a review of it, but I have always been impressed with his research. He is not a medical researcher, but he researches the research. His mission is to take the information being learned by actual researchers and make it understandable to the rest of us. So, if you are frozen in this weekend and want to learn more about diabesity for yourself or someone you know, have a look.

Diabesity Solutions Series
Should be available until midnight, Sunday night. He is based in the Seattle area, so I'm guessing that is Pacific time. I've got 3 hours left to watch.
All about Kefir

For me one of the best Internet sources about Kefir. Very detailed.

About Kefir Grains and Kefir; their history, use, extended use, and health benefits  

Dom's About Kefir Grains and Kefir

perhaps #spam (?)
I'm all 'bout kefir, 'bout kefir, no joghurt ...  
In short, one less to evangelize :-)
that line just popped up in my mind, and I still find "All about the bass" very infectious. :)

A few years ago I have switched so Soy Joghurt, am experimenting with other Joghurts and would really like some Kefir again. It's been quite a few years ...
US Immigration Westernizes the Human Gut Microbiome

Migration from a non-western nation to the United States is found to be associated with a loss in gut microbiome diversity and function in a manner that may predispose individuals to metabolic disease.


US Immigration Westernizes the Human Gut Microbiome
Vangay et al., 2018, Cell 175, 962–972
November 1, 2018 DOI:

  • US immigration is associated with loss of gut microbiome diversity
  • US immigrants lose bacterial enzymes associated with plant fiber degradation
  • Bacteroides strains displace Prevotella strains according to time spent in the USA
  • Loss of diversity increases with obesity and is compounded across generations
Rotting Food can be Safe and Healthy

  last edited: Tue, 23 Oct 2018 10:57:02 +0200  
Fermentation is both low-tech and democratic. It can be a fundamental component of a sustainable food system

Vietnam's Low-tech Food System Takes Advantage of Decay (2017, LOW-TECH MAGAZINE)

Matjes eaten "the Dutch way"

Is fermentation really so effortless? The short answer is yes. Many recipes will call for two things: water and salt. At just a 1:50 ratio (2%) of salt to food, you can create an environment undesireable for all the bad bacteria and encourage all the good ones. Sauerkraut, kimchi, fish sauce, sriracha, and kosher dill pickles—are all made according to this principle.

  last edited: Wed, 23 Oct 2019 16:06:46 +0200  
Norwegian cuisine used to be all about fermented food, see
Stinky and nsfw :-)

In this case, I'm not sure I have the guts. :-)
I'm curious if anyone has direct experience.
Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease (2018)

For those who are interested in this specific topic: I tried to summarize the state of the art 2018 about the argoment.
In any case, the most important thing, regardless of the type of  renal stone, is good hydration, day and night. Very interesting is the recent approach of a microbiology therapy, recolonizing the intestine with Oxalobacter formigenes.


We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development.

Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease (2013, Abstract)
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2013 Mar;20(2):165-74. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2012.12.001.

Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group (2015, FullText)
DOI: 10.4081/aiua.2015.2.105

Treating Kidney Stones with Diet (2017, Greger)

How to Prevent Kidney Stones With Diet
by on YouTube

How to Treat Kidney Stones with Diet
by on YouTube

Most kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate. Oxalobacter formigenes is a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium that metabolizes oxalate in the intestinal tract and is present in a large proportion of the normal adult population. It was hypothesized that the absence of O. formigenes could lead to increased colonic absorption of oxalate, and the subsequent increase in urinary oxalate could favor the development of stones. To test this hypothesis, a case-control study involving 247 adult patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones and 259 age-, gender-, and region-matched control subjects was performed. The prevalence of O. formigenes, determined by stool culture, was 17% among case patients and 38% among control subjects; on the basis of multivariate analysis controlling demographic factors, dietary oxalate, and antibiotic use, the odds ratio for colonization was 0.3 (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 0.5). The inverse association was consistently present within strata of age, gender, race/ethnicity, region, and antibiotic use. Among the subset of participants who completed a 24-h urine collection, the risk for kidney stones was directly proportional to urinary oxalate, but when urinary factors were included in the multivariable model, the odds ratio for O. formigenes remained 0.3 (95% confidence interval 0.1 to 0.7). Surprisingly, median urinary oxalate excretion did not differ with the presence or absence of O. formigenes colonization. In conclusion, these results suggest that colonization with O. formigenes is associated with a 70% reduction in the risk for being a recurrent calcium oxalate stone former.

Oxalobacter formigenes May Reduce the Risk of Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones (2008, Abstract)
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Jun; 19(6): 1197–1203. doi:  10.1681/ASN.2007101058

#kidney_stones #calcoli_renali
  last edited: Mon, 27 Aug 2018 16:48:09 +0200  
@Manuel  You are right.
I believe that there are many factors that contribute to the formation of kidney stones. I guess it's also the very hot weather for several months a year in your area that predisposes to a latent daily dehydration of people leading to concentrated urine. Gradually, combined with other individual factors, this is the terrain predisposing for the formation of the first crystals that then make stone.
For those at risk the key message is: People drink, hydrate well, day and night (drink before going to bed, even at the cost of getting up at night), thus diluting the urine. If stones have already been made, all the other measures (first and foremost nutritional) mentioned in the above-mentioned sources are useful.
Onion Power !

I like onions !
Raw, steamed, roasted, baked, gratinated, no matter
I wouldn't want to miss a day without her

...First Do No Harm

  last edited: Tue, 26 Feb 2019 11:32:22 +0100  
The diet that can cure epilepsy (2016, Mosaicscience)
If the drugs don’t work, doctors can prescribe a special diet for people with epilepsy that will often stop or reduce their seizures.

First Do No Harm (Film with Meryl Streep)


...First Do No Harm is a 1997 American made-for-television drama film directed by Jim Abrahams about a boy whose severe epilepsy, unresponsive to medications with terrible side effects, is controlled by the ketogenic diet. Aspects of the story mirror Abrahams' own experience with his son Charlie.

Edit: #epilepsy #"ketogenic diet" #non_pharmacological_interventions

Credits and further information:
...First Do No Harm (Film, Wikipedia)
Ketogenic diet (Wikipedia)
Ketogenic Diet: An Early Option for Epilepsy Treatment, Instead of A Last Choice Only (2013)
Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy: A Current Update on Non-Conventional Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Interventions (2015)
Matthew’s Friends
The Gut Microbiota Mediates the Anti-Seizure Effects of the Ketogenic Diet (2018, Cell)
Ketogene Diät: Darmbakterien sorgen für weniger Anfälle bei Epilepsie (2018, aertzeblatt)
Keto Diet for Neurological Disorders (2019,

Edit: link update

When people talk about ketogenic diet, the first thought that comes to their mind is that they will have to consume a lot of non-vegetarian food items in order to fulfill the protein requirement. That is however not true.

You’re Probably Not Mostly Microbes

  last edited: Wed, 31 Oct 2018 19:13:26 +0100  
Well, to know it!  :-)

We critically revisit the ″common knowledge″ that bacteria outnumber human cells by a ratio of at least 10:1 in the human body. We found the total number of bacteria in the ″reference man″ to be 3.9·1013, with an uncertainty (SEM) of 25%, and a variation over the population (CV) of 52%. For human cells we identify the dominant role of the hematopoietic lineage to the total count of body cells (≈90%), and revise past estimates to reach a total of 3.0·1013 human cells in the 70 kg ″reference man″ with 2% uncertainty and 14% CV. Our analysis updates the widely-cited 10:1 ratio, showing that the number of bacteria in our bodies is actually of the same order as the number of human cells. Indeed, the numbers are similar enough that each defecation event may flip the ratio to favor human cells over bacteria.
Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body (doi:

Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body (2016, PLOS Biology)

Distribution of cell number and mass for different cell types in the human body (for a 70 kg adult man)


The distribution of the number of human cells by cell type

Power of Ten
You’re Probably Not Mostly Microbes (2016, TheAtlantic)

The gut microbiome has  in  fact  been  considered  a  “forgotten”  endocrine  organ  that  acts  as  an  endogenous
circadian  organizer  and  a  key  regulator  of  the  central  nervous  system,  with  an  ultimate
capacity to modulate our behaviour and contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders

Microbioma Intestinale e rischio cardiometabolico (06/2020,